Italian Lesson - past tense in Italian
Following to a request from Lisiamc..."Past tense. When to pair the verb with avere, when with essere? The transitive/intransitive rule makes my brain hurt. Is there any easier way?"...I decided to dedicate a short lesson to the choice of the auxiliary at the past tense.In English you make the past of a verb with the auxiliary "to have" - unless you use the passive form of the verb. Also in Italian you can use the the verb "essere" at the passive form, but there are other situations where you must choose between the "avere" and "essere".Ho acquistato una borsa - I've bought a bag (active form)La borsa è acquistata (da me) - The bag was bought (by me). (passive form)1. The general rule is that if a verb is TRANSITIVE, it needs the "AVERE AUXILIARY". While if a verb is INTRANSITIVE it takes the "ESSERE AUXILIARY" as in the example:Transitive Verb: es. Ho mangiato una mela. (the main verb "mangiare" is followed by a direct object so it is transitive; if a verb answers to the question "what", then it is transitive. es. to eat, what? an apple - mangiare, cosa? una mela -> avere mangiato is right).Intransitive Verb: es. Sono andato a Venezia.(the main verb "andare" is followed by a preposition - indirect object - so it is NOT transitive; to go, where? andare, dove? -> essere andato is right).2. The general rule also say that the verb "ESSERE" is the auxiliary of the verbs RIFLESSIVI and IMPERSONALI2a. a verb is reflexive if the subject and the object are the same. es. Mi sono pettinata - while in English would be "I've brushed my hair" (am I right?)2b. a verb is impersonal when it hasn't a specific subject. It must be conjugated at the third singular person.es. E' proibito fumare. (while in English you can use the second person: You mustn't smoke.)ps: the impersonal expressions concerning weather can be conjugated both with the "avere" and "essere" auxiliaries So:Ieri è piovuto / Ieri ha piovutoare both right.N. B. Exceptions to the rule: There are some intransitive verbs which take the auxiliary "avere". Note that Italians use the auxiliary "avere" when the verb is not followed neither by a direct object nor by an indirect object: es. (Il cane ha abbaiato"). Check which intransitive verbs take the auxiliary "avere" here:www.scudit.net/mdwausiliare.htm And now, hurry up! You got a task!Fill the gaps with the right auxiliar: essere o avere.Find the exercise here www.eoiguada.info/profesores/mmartin/Esehotpot/Cloze/1º/Essereoavere.htmGood luck, let me know!