Following to a question that Gerry made in this thread:&
Following to a question that Gerry made in this thread: www.italymagazione.com/community/post/voglio-parlare-italiano-perfettamente ....
Can you explain why you used the congiuntivo presente tense in your first sentence in Italian, "sono felice che tu sia.......". I thought this tense was only used in hypothetical or uncertain situations.
...I decided to dedicate a lesson to the Congiuntivo and how it is used in Italian.
Congiuntivo is used in secondary clauses when:
- they're introduced by "che":
Mi ha detto che sarebbe venuto - He told me he would have come
E' impossibile che tutti i negozi siano chiusi! - Shops cannot be all closed!
- when the principal clause expresses feelings, doubt, uncertainty - see examples below:
Sono felice che tu sia qui - I'm happy you're here.
Credevo che il museo fosse più vicino - I thought that the museum was closer (than it actually is)
Non so se dovremmo andarci - I'm not sure if we should go there
- they're introduced by linkers like: sebbene, nonostante, anche se (although, even if)
Andrei al concerto, anche se dovesse piovere - I would go to the concert, even if it rains.
Ho accettato la loro ordinazione, nonostante sia orario di chiusura - I've accepted their order, although we were about to close.
Periodo ipotetico - Hypothetic Clause
There are three levels of hypothetic clauses, depending on their degree of uncertainty - the more they are related to past events or things unlikely to happen, the better we use subjective:
Se piove non vengo - If it rains, I won't come
Se dovesse piovere, non verrò - If it rained, I wouldn't come
Se avesse piovuto, non sarei venuta - If it had rained I wouldn't have come.
Using Congiuntivo in Italian
Ok, that was the rule, but now it would be better to have a look at daily conversations that may occur when talking with an Italian speaker - this is very likely to happen, since subjective is greatly used in Italian:
- Giving advices:
Dovresti insistere, se vuoi che vengano - You should make pressure, if you would like them to come.
- Making predictions. ATTENTION: even if the secondary clause is introduced by "se / if" we don't use subjective, because we are talking about future events. Compare the following examples:
Se i prezzi non scenderanno, la gente acquisterà sempre meno - If prices don't go down, people will buy lesser and lesser
Se la situazione rimanesse tale, non so come gli altri reagiranno - If things don't change, I don't know how they would react to that.
The former is making predictions while the latter expresses doubt.
- Expressing wishes:
I want you to come in Italy with me - Voglio che tu venga in Italia con me.
Now it's up to you!
Compiti per casa
- E' giusto che tu ____________ (andare) a teatro
- E' normale che voi _______________ (dovere) pagare i biglietti
- Non penso che lui ________ (avere) ragione
- Sei sicuro che non ci __________ (essere) altri spettacoli il prossimo week-end?
- Se tu __________ (prenotare), saremmo sicuri di avere un posto a sedere
These links may be of help - concerning the tenses of italian subjective:
Enjoy today's lesson - even if I must admit that Subjective is not such an amusing thing..
Waiting for the exercise to be done... Buon lavoro!